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This discovery of a skullcap and partial skeleton in a cave in the Neander Valley (near Dusseldorf) was the first recognized fossil human form, although the prior two discoveries were subsequently recognized as the first early human fossils found (Smithsonian 2014b).
The type specimen, dubbed Neanderthal 1, consists of a skull cap, two femora, three bones from the right arm, two from the left arm, part of the left ilium, fragments of a scapula, and ribs.
The mt DNA is useful for tracking ancestry through females (matrilineage).
Nuclear DNA is inherited from both parents and genes are rearranged in the process of recombination.
This speed-up of cultural change seems connected with the arrival of modern humans, Homo sapiens sapiens.
Additionally, human culture began to become more technologically advanced, in that different populations of humans begin to create novelty in existing technologies.
Teeth from Okladniko and Denisova caves have been attributed to Neanderthals (Goebel 1999), although subsequent DNA analysis showed that some findings attributed to Neanderthals actually belong to a distinct hominid, the Denisovans (Reich et al. Notably, a phalanx and two tooth found in the Denisova Cave were distinct from the Neanderthals and attributed to Denisovans.
On the other hand, the discovery of a toe bone in 2011 in the Denisova Cave was preliminarily determined to belong to a Neanderthal, not a Denisovan (Gibbons 2011).
Homo ergaster is another early Homo species that has been delineated, and traced to about 1.8 to 1.3 million years ago. ergaster is possibly ancestral to or shares a common ancestor with H. erectus; it is widely considered to be the direct ancestor of later hominids such as Homo heidelbergensis, Homo sapiens, Neanderthals, Denisovans, and even Asian Homo erectus. ergaster were the first of the hominina known to leave Africa. erectus is known to have spread as far as Georgia, India, Sri Lanka, China, and Java. Neanderthals are considered to have lived from perhaps 400,000 years ago, with their appearance in the European fossil record variously put at 200,000 (Zimmer 2013) to 400,000 years ago (Green et al. Neanderthals disappeared from the fossil record about 30,000 years ago.However, the earlier findings prior to 1856 were not recognized as belonging to archaic forms, but were widely misinterpreted as skeletons of modern humans with deformities or disease (Gould 1990).The August day in 1856 when a fossil was discovered in a limestone quarry in Germany is heralded as the beginning of paleoanthropology as a scientific discipline (Kreger 2005).This area probably was not occupied all at the same time; the northern border of their range especially would have contracted frequently with the onset of cold periods.
On the other hand, the northern border of their range as represented by fossils may not be the real northern border of the area that they occupied, since artifacts indicative of the Middle Paleolithic have been found even further north, up to 60° on the Russian plain (Pavlov et al. In Siberia, Middle Paleolithic populations are evidenced only in the southern portions.Until about 50,000 to 40,000 years ago, the use of stone tools seems to have progressed stepwise: Each phase (habilis, ergaster, and neanderthal) started at a higher level than the previous one, but once that phase had started, further development was slow.